Wood - light, soft, not very durable. Used for house interiors, cases, furniture, water troughs and fuel[61, , ]. Prefers a good moist but not water-logged soil. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Plants are very shade tolerant, especially when young, but growth is slower in dense shade. Intolerant of atmospheric pollution.
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Wood - light, soft, not very durable. Used for house interiors, cases, furniture, water troughs and fuel[61, , ]. Prefers a good moist but not water-logged soil. Grows well in heavy clay soils.
Plants are very shade tolerant, especially when young, but growth is slower in dense shade. Intolerant of atmospheric pollution.
Prefers slightly acid conditions down to a pH of about 5. Prefers growing on a north-facing slope. This species is unsatisfactory in south-eastern Britain due to damage by late frosts, trees rarely live more than 40 years and have a poor thin crown.
Trees grow far better in the cooler and wetter far north and west of the country[82, ]. Another report says that it grows best in the milder areas of the country. Young trees are very slow to establish because they are often damaged by late frosts, it is best to grow the young trees in high shade to get them through this time[1, ]. Another report says that trees are late coming into growth and so usually escape late frost damage.
Trees should be planted into their permanent positions when they are quite small, between 30 and 90cm in height. Larger trees will check badly and hardly put on any growth for several years. This also badly affects root development and wind resistance.
Plants are strongly outbreeding, self-fertilized seed usually grows poorly. They hybridize freely with other members of this genus. Our new book to be released soon is Edible Shrubs. Germination is often poor, usually taking about 6 - 8 weeks.
Stratification is said to produce a more even germination so it is probably best to sow the seed in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe in the autumn[80, ]. The seed remains viable for up to 5 years if it is well stored.
When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on for at least their first winter in pots. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Alternatively, if you have sufficient seed, it is possible to sow in an outdoor seedbed. One report says that it is best to grow the seedlings on in the shade at a density of about plants per square metre whilst another report says that they are best grown on in a sunny position.
Other Names If available other names are mentioned here Found In Countries where the plant has been found are listed here if the information is available Weed Potential Right plant wrong place. We are currently updating this section.
Accessed A lofty tree with a trunk 6 to 8 ft in diameter; trees in this country of slender pyramidal form; young shoots glabrous, shining, yellowish grey; winter buds globose, very resinous, bluish at the base. The leaves are arranged on all sides of the shoot except underneath, the side ones spreading horizontally, the uppermost ones pointing forward. On young plants the leaves are sharply pointed and not divided at the apex.
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