ASTM D1822 PDF

More D To compensate for the minor differences in cross-sectional area of the specimens, the energy to break is normalized to units of kilojoules per square metre or foot-pounds-force per square inch of minimum cross-sectional area. An alternative approach to normalizing the impact energy that compensates for these minor differences and still retains the test unit as joules foot-pounds is shown in Section For a perfectly elastic material, the impact energy is usually reported per unit volume of material undergoing deformation. However, since much of the energy to break the plastic materials for which this test method is written is dissipated in drawing of only a portion of the test region, such normalization on a volume basis is not feasible. In order to observe the effect of elongation or rate of extension, or both, upon the result, the test method permits two specimen geometries.

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More D To compensate for the minor differences in cross-sectional area of the specimens, the energy to break is normalized to units of kilojoules per square metre or foot-pounds-force per square inch of minimum cross-sectional area.

An alternative approach to normalizing the impact energy that compensates for these minor differences and still retains the test unit as joules foot-pounds is shown in Section For a perfectly elastic material, the impact energy is usually reported per unit volume of material undergoing deformation.

However, since much of the energy to break the plastic materials for which this test method is written is dissipated in drawing of only a portion of the test region, such normalization on a volume basis is not feasible. In order to observe the effect of elongation or rate of extension, or both, upon the result, the test method permits two specimen geometries.

Results obtained with different capacity machines generally are not comparable. In general, the Type S specimen with its greater occurrence of brittle fracture gives greater reproducibility, but less differentiation among materials.

Note 2—Friction losses are largely eliminated by careful design and proper operation of the testing machine. Some materials exhibit a transition between different failure mechanisms. If so, the elongation will be critically dependent on the rate of extension encountered in the test. The impact energy values for a group of such specimens will have an abnormally large dispersion. With such materials, determining the type of failure, ductile or brittle, by examining the broken pieces is difficult, if not impossible.

It is helpful to sort a set of specimens into two groups by observing the broken pieces to ascertain whether or not there was necking during the test. Qualitatively, the strain rates encountered here are intermediate between the high rate of the Izod test of Test Methods D and the low rate of usual tension testing in accordance with Test Method D Therefore, given the same specimen geometry, it is possible that one material will produce tensile-impact energies for fracture due to a large force associated with a small elongation, and another material will produce the same energy for fracture result due to a small force associated with a large elongation.

It shall not be assumed that this test method will correlate with other tests or end uses unless such a correlation has been established by experiment. Comparisons between molded and machined specimens must not be made without first establishing quantitatively the differences inherent between the two methods of preparation.

Therefore, it is advisable to refer to that material specification before using this test method. Scope 1. Rigid materials are suitable for testing by this method as well as specimens that are too flexible or thin to be tested in accordance with other impact test methods.

The values given in parentheses are for information only. Note 1—This test method and ISO address the same subject matter, but differ in technical content. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

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