Margaret Canovan on how the term populism was used,  The word populism is a vague and contested term that has been used in reference to a diverse variety of phenomena. Have people the right, in a democracy, to hold an opinion? If that is the case, then yes, I am a populist. The ideational definition of populism used by Mudde and Rovira Kaltwasser  A common approach to defining populism is known as the ideational approach. It thus differs from the "thick-centred" or "full" ideologies such as fascism , liberalism , and socialism, which provide more far-reaching ideas about social transformation. As a thin-centred ideology, populism is therefore attached to a thick-ideology by populist politicians.
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Margaret Canovan on how the term populism was used,  The word populism is a vague and contested term that has been used in reference to a diverse variety of phenomena. Have people the right, in a democracy, to hold an opinion? If that is the case, then yes, I am a populist. The ideational definition of populism used by Mudde and Rovira Kaltwasser  A common approach to defining populism is known as the ideational approach.
It thus differs from the "thick-centred" or "full" ideologies such as fascism , liberalism , and socialism, which provide more far-reaching ideas about social transformation. As a thin-centred ideology, populism is therefore attached to a thick-ideology by populist politicians. The antagonistic relationship between the people and the elite. The idea of popular sovereignty. The ideational definition of populism used by Ben Stanley  The ideologies which populism can be paired with can be contradictory, resulting in different forms of populism that can oppose each other.
The latter are presented as juxtaposing "the people" against both "the elite" and an additional group who are also regarded as being separate from "the people" and whom "the elite" is seen to favour, such as immigrants, homosexuals, travellers, or communists. For populists, on the other hand, the consciousness of the people, generally referred to as common sense, is the basis of all good politics.
Political scientist Cas Mudde  For populists, "the people" are presented as being homogenous,  and also virtuous. In such a framework, all individuals regarded as being "native" to a particular state, either by birth or by ethnicity, could be considered part of "the people".
For instance, in Britain, the centre-right Conservative Party conceived of " Middle England " as its heartland, while the far-right British National Party conceived of the "native British people" as its heartland. Inclusionary populism tends to define "the people" more broadly, accepting and advocating for minority and marginalised groups, while exclusionary populism defines "the people" in a much stricter sense, generally being focused on a particular sociocultural group and antagonistic against minority groups.
Antisemitic populists often accuse "the elite" of being made up of many Jews as well. Because of that its judgement is pure, its will is strong, and none can corrupt or even threaten it. Rather than choosing laws for themselves, these citizens are only mobilised for elections in which their only option is to select their representatives rather than taking a more direct role in legislation and governance.
Responding to this critique, Mudde and Rovira Kaltwasser argued that the ideational definition did allow for a "non-populism" in the form of both elitism and pluralism.
Whereas populists regard the elites as bad and the common people as good, elitists view "the people" as being vulgar, immoral, and dangerous and "the elites" as being morally, culturally, and intellectually superior. Pluralists encourage governance through compromise and consensus in order to reflect the interests of as many of these groups as possible. In this understanding, populism is usually perceived as a positive factor in the mobilisation of the populace to develop a communitarian form of democracy.
He regarded it as a positive force for emancipatory change in society The Laclauan definition of populism, so called after the Argentinian political theorist Ernesto Laclau who developed it, uses the term in reference to what proponents regard as an emancipatory force that is the essence of politics. I am not an individual, I am the people.
CANOVAN POPULISM 1981 PDF
When treated along a continuum, populism cannot be separated from nonpopulism. Fifth, and perhaps even more crucially, our new minimal definition of modern populism points directly to its two negative poles, that is, political liberalism as has been analyzed by several authors, most notably Rawls, and autarchy or, if I were to use a rather tautological term, nondemocratic illiberalism. Populism and the two faces of democracy. Political science confronts populism: Nevertheless, there is no doubt that canivan with strong populist components have gradually emerged as major political players across both Western and Eastern Canoan.
Early parliamentarism and late industrialization in the Balkans and Latin America. University of Alabama Press. This already raises the issue of concept operationalization, to which I am now turning brief attention. European Journal of Political Research46 3— That minimal definitions are difficult to achieve hardly needs stressing.