In consequence, although Seneca may have used both treatises by Chrysippus and Posidonius, his main inspiration is now thought to be chrysippean . Seneca may also have known works written by the Peripatetic philosopher Theophrastus , whom he takes as philosophical adversary in the first book . Parallels have also been suggested with the Epicurean philosopher Philodemus  , who had also written a work On Anger . Dating[ edit ] The exact date of the writing of the work is unknown, apart from an earliest date terminum post quem , deduced from repeated references by Seneca to the episodic anger of Caligula , who died 24 January 41 AD.
|Published (Last):||7 June 2019|
|PDF File Size:||3.80 Mb|
|ePub File Size:||19.54 Mb|
|Price:||Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]|
Etymology and origin[ edit ] Representation of ancient Roman soldiers at rest In ancient Roman culture otium was a military concept as its first Latin usage. Incerte errat animus, praeterpropter vitam vivitur.
For to whom a task has been set, he does the work, desires it, and delights his own mind and intellect: in leisure, a mind does not know what it wants.
The same is true of us ; we are neither at home nor in the battlefield; we go here and there, and wherever there is a movement, we are there too. The mind wanders unsure, except in that life is lived. Otium is an example of the usage of the term "praeterpropter", meaning more or less of leisure. It was first used in military terms related to inactivity during war. This was otium privatum private leisure , equal to negotium a type of business.
In Athens, leisure was one of the marks of the Athenian gentleman : the time to do things right, unhurried time, time to discuss in. From there it became "discussion", and from there, philosophical and educational schools, which were both conducted by discussion. Plato and his contemporaries, if the Greater Hippias be not authentic brought schole into philosophy; as often, Plato can be quoted on both sides of the question whether leisure is better than the business of a citizen.
In the Greater Hippias, it is one weakness of the title character that, although he has the education and manners of a gentleman, he has no leisure; but Socrates, in the Apology , has no leisure either; he is too busy as a gad-fly, keeping his fellow Athenians awake to virtue.
The Epicurean idea of otium favors contemplation,  compassion, gratitude and friendship. The Epicurean view is that wisdom has as much to contribute to the benefit of the public as does that of contributions of politicians and laborers i.
The rustic otium concept incorporates country living into Epicureanism. The active city public life of negotium and an otium of reserved country life of reflection have been much written about by Cicero and Seneca the Younger.
Epicurus promised enjoyment in retirement as a concept of otium. The portraits of the Garden of Epicurus near Athens represented political and cultural heroes of the time. Twenty-first—century historians Gregory Warden and David Romano have argued that the layout of the sculptures in "The Garden" were designed to give the viewer contrasting viewpoints of the Epicurean otium and the Hellenistic Stoic viewpoint of otium i.
This new time of otium was filled by Greek scholarly pursuits and Greek pleasures. The time environment within which a person existed had sides to it that were filled with Greek customs such as pastimes, hobbies, interchanges of thoughts and ideas, and private bathing.
Otium and negotium was then a new social concept which has perpetuated to our own time. Andre concludes that the original sense of otium was related to military service and the idleness that happened in the winter,  as opposed to the business negotium of the rest of the year. The most ancient Roman calendar divided the year into ten months devoted to war and farming, leaving the winter months of January and February vacant for individual otium.
During this time he composed Tusculanae Disputationes , a series of books on Stoic philosophy. He further defines it as a state of security and peace pax — a type of "public health". Cicero advises in his third book On Duties that when the city life becomes too much , one should retreat to the country for leisure.
That which stands first, and is most to be desired by all happy, honest and healthy-minded men, is ease with dignity. In one passage of De Oratore he explains that Philistus spent his retirement writing history as his otium. Others that were "retired" from public life for whatever reason devoted their otium cum seritio leisure with service to poetry, mathematics, music and teaching children.
It means the well-earned leisure which is a culmination of a long career of action and achievement. Its break away from civic affairs contrasted with negotia publica, participation in civic affairs of the republican aristocracy.
In his time, this kind of "free time" was only for the few privileged elite and was mostly made possible by the toil of slaves. It was associated with an egotistic and arrogant lifestyle, compared to those who had to earn their own living with no slaves. Today technology and educational systems enter into the equation on making leisure time otium available to almost everyone, not just the privileged elite, which enables the pursuit of hobbies.
This then promotes great sacrifices which promotes civic peace with honor within the state. He points out that the tranquillity one enjoys is due to the efforts of the majority. This concept of retirement through a lifetime of work was enjoyed only by the ruling class and the elite. The common people could only hope to enjoy a leisurely retirement with dignity as an inheritance.
He tended to mark otium with erotic influence. Leisure, Catullus, is mischievous to you: You revel in and desire leisure too much: Leisure has previously destroyed kings and bountiful cities.
Bryn Mawr Classical Review
Etymology and origin[ edit ] Representation of ancient Roman soldiers at rest In ancient Roman culture otium was a military concept as its first Latin usage. Incerte errat animus, praeterpropter vitam vivitur. For to whom a task has been set, he does the work, desires it, and delights his own mind and intellect: in leisure, a mind does not know what it wants. The same is true of us ; we are neither at home nor in the battlefield; we go here and there, and wherever there is a movement, we are there too.
DE OTIO – DE TRANQUILLITATE ANIMI
Licet nihil aliud quod sit salutare temptemus, proderit tamen per se ipsum secedere: meliores erimus singuli. Quid quod secedere ad optimos uiros et aliquod exemplum eligere ad quod uitam derigamus licet? Nam inter cetera mala illud pessimum est, quod uitia ipsa mutamus. Sic ne hoc quidem nobis contingit, permanere in malo iam familiari. Aliud ex alio placet uexatque nos hoc quoque, quod iudicia nostra non tantum praua sed etiam leuia sunt: fluctuamur aliudque ex alio comprendimus, petita relinquimus, relicta repetimus, alternae inter cupiditatem nostram et paenitentiam uices sunt. Pendemus enim toti ex alienis iudiciis et id optimum nobis uidetur quod petitores laudatoresque multos habet, non id quod laudandum petendumque est, nec uiam bonam ac malam per se aestimamus sed turba uestigiorum, in quibus nulla sunt redeuntium. Certe Stoici uestri dicunt: "usque ad ultimum uitae finem in actu erimus, non desinemus communi bono operam dare, adiuuare singulos, opem ferre etiam inimicis senili manu.