EFFETTO CASIMIR PDF

Casimir effect explained In quantum field theory , the Casimir effect and the Casimir—Polder force are physical forces arising from a quantized field. They are named after the Dutch physicist Hendrik Casimir who predicted them in The Casimir effect can be understood by the idea that the presence of conducting metals and dielectric s alters the vacuum expectation value of the energy of the second quantized electromagnetic field. Any medium supporting oscillations has an analogue of the Casimir effect. For example, beads on a string [3] [4] as well as plates submerged in turbulent water [5] or gas [6] illustrate the Casimir force. In modern theoretical physics , the Casimir effect plays an important role in the chiral bag model of the nucleon ; in applied physics it is significant in some aspects of emerging microtechnologies and nanotechnologies.

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Physical properties[ edit ] The typical example is of the two uncharged conductive plates in a vacuum , placed a few nanometers apart. In a classical description, the lack of an external field means that there is no field between the plates, and no force would be measured between them.

Although the Casimir effect can be expressed in terms of virtual particles interacting with the objects, it is best described and more easily calculated in terms of the zero-point energy of a quantized field in the intervening space between the objects.

This force has been measured and is a striking example of an effect captured formally by second quantization. Thus it can be interpreted without any reference to the zero-point energy vacuum energy of quantum fields. On a submicron scale, this force becomes so strong that it becomes the dominant force between uncharged conductors.

After a conversation with Niels Bohr , who suggested it had something to do with zero-point energy, Casimir alone formulated the theory predicting a force between neutral conducting plates in which is called the Casimir effect in the narrow sense.

Predictions of the force were later extended to finite-conductivity metals and dielectrics, and recent calculations have considered more general geometries. Experiments before had observed the force qualitatively, and indirect validation of the predicted Casimir energy had been made by measuring the thickness of liquid helium films. However it was not until that a direct experiment by S.

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The Casimir Effect

Bajora On a submicron scale, this force becomes so strong that efgetto becomes the dominant force between uncharged conductors. This frequency dependence acts as a natural regulator. The regulator will serve to make the expression finite, and in the end will be removed. However, even the vacuum has a vastly complex structure, so all calculations of quantum field theory must be made in relation to this model of the vacuum.

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EFFETTO CASIMIR PDF

Physical properties[ edit ] The typical example is of the two uncharged conductive plates in a vacuum , placed a few nanometers apart. In a classical description, the lack of an external field means that there is no field between the plates, and no force would be measured between them. Although the Casimir effect can be expressed in terms of virtual particles interacting with the objects, it is best described and more easily calculated in terms of the zero-point energy of a quantized field in the intervening space between the objects. This force has been measured and is a striking example of an effect captured formally by second quantization.

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Casimir effect

He is the co-author of "String Theory for Dummies. In this case, it results in vacuum energy from "empty space" actually exerting a force on physical objects. While this may seem bizarre, the fact of the matter is that the Casimir Effect has been experimentally verified many times over and provides some useful applications in some areas of nanotechnology. How the Casimir Effect Works The most basic description of the Casimir Effect includes a situation where you have two uncharged metallic plates near each other, with a vacuum between them. The virtual particles created within the vacuum create virtual photons that interact with the uncharged metal plates. As a result, if the plates are extremely close together less than a micron then this will become the dominant force.

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