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Statistically speaking, every person on the earth rides an elevator once every 72 hours, and everyone considers the availability and reliability of elevators to be a matter of course.

At a trade show in New York, a man shocked a crowd of spectators as he stood on an elevator platform at maximum height Fig. The platform sank by only a few centimeters before it immediately stopped. The man on the elevator platform was Elisha Graves Otis. With his safety brake, Otis practically founded the elevator industry.

His invention made it possible for the first time that a building—and the fantasy of architects—could continue to grow and advance the course of urbanization. Otis demonstrates the safety brake Otis sold his first safety elevator in Every year, Otis installs more than , new elevators, from simple passenger elevators for apartment buildings to high-rise elevators such as those for the Petronas Towers in Kuala Lumpur or the Burj Dubai in the United Arab Emirates. This amounts to approx.

Elevator efficiency gains can be attained that increase the load capacity while reducing required installation space, reduce noise while increasing traversing speeds, lengthen maintenance intervals, and reduce environmental pollution in spite of increased performance.

The drive technology employed is an essential factor in achieving these goals. While years ago the high-volume segment still operated on drive designs with frequency-controlled gear motors and hydraulic installations motors with pumps , the technology transformed itself in the late s to direct drives permanent-magnet actuated synchronous motors with high pole-pair numbers , also known as torque motors. For a comparison, see Table 1.

Thanks to the freedom from maintenance and the power density of torque motors, it was also possible to integrate them in the elevator shaft see Fig. This option was as welcome to architects as to building owners because it enabled them to realize new building designs and savings. The technology of these motors frequently requires an absolute position value to ascertain the rotor position so that the motor current is controlled with the correct phase.

Also, the relatively low rated speed 60 to rpm of these drive designs made high-resolution position acquisition a must to be adequate to the short control cycle times. To be able to withstand the environmental conditions of an elevator shaft e. This came together with a market requirement for providing large cable lengths from the encoder up to 10 m without using extensions.

In addition, the simple, purely axial installation of the encoders permits optimum integration in the motor design with mounted brake.







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