Inversely, every affix represented by a separate entry in the Dictionary is thereby identified as an active one. Preface to the Second Edition — PDF The principle which governs the limitation of derivational series or word families in the international vocabulary is that of a parallel between formal and semantic continuities. A more detailed analysis of some verb families may prove useful at this point. The headquarters of the Interlingue-Union are in Switzerland. The basis from which the initial compilation took off consisted of complete assemblies of all words in the major source instotutas belonging to a particular etymological word family.
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Magal The case of medieval Latin is very similar and so, albeit in different fields and on different levels, are the examples of contemporary Pidgin English, juriscconsulto Swahili or Kiswahili in East Africa, of Hindustani, Mandarin Chinese, and of literally dozens of other so-called lingua francas.
The base word is represented in them by poco and the archaic Italian form pauco which serve to explain the English paucity. Finally, in the case of specifically technical words, the meaning intended is often identified by a subject label, as mathematics or medicine. In so far as they are affix formations that portion of them which represents the base word is printed in roman, the rest in italic characters.
The reasoning in favor of a restricted sphere of assemblage of international words does not preclude the possibility of shifting its boundaries in the interest of a richer haul.
Institutas do jurisconsulto Gaio They are in a sense potential families. Both are governed by prototype rules evolved from the contributing variants. For if no one can be expected to give the French, Russian or German word for doughnut if he can prove that the thing itself is unknown to the speakers of those languages, the same privilege should be enjoyed by a person speaking or writing the international language.
The deliberations of these men and women bore fruit. On the other hand, the internationalism of German and English Automobil and automobile is due to the transition of words from one language to another; words of this type, though sometimes loosely called cognates, should be distinguished as international by loan and diffusion. A bold guess as to the number of international words which the methods outlined above would yield if exploited to the last might run into several hundred thousands.
Morris took part in every phase of the work of the Association. Please jurisconuslto recipient e-mail address es. When looking for the base entry of a word encountered in a derived formation, one has to consider that full verbs have added to their stems one of the endings -ar, jurjsconsulto, or -ir; while in the case of nouns the termination may be -a, -o or -e; also, more rarely, -um, dp, -on, ; in the case of adjectives the addition is -e.
The continuity of form in the prototype pair pontifice-pontifical in contrast to English pontiff-pontifical or German Pontifex-pontifikal is an important feature of the international vocabulary. Cancel Forgot your password? Instjtutas and English Haus and house represent a type which owes its international range to the common descent of two or more languages; words of this type are international by cognateship in the restricted sense of the term.
Similar consequences result from the principle that the deriving stem of a particular series of words determines the form of the base word. Late Greek served as one. Holmes, Harvard Jurisxonsulto Mr.
The resulting prototypes are neither English nor German, not Latin or Greek, neither this language nor that, but in them the variants occurring in this language as well as in that can immediately be recognized. This is so because the Romance languages, when in the course of their development from Latin they abolished the declensional system of nouns and adjectives, did not normally preserve one case at the expense of all the others; they normally preserved a composite of the various oblique cases.
That is to say, any word even though it occur in only one of juriwconsulto contributing languages is listed in the Dictionary if it is built by means of one of them on a base in full international standing.
Neither German Statistik nor of course English statistics or French statistique can qualify as an international form. When used as nouns to represent a male or female saint, institutaas forms sancto and sancta are satisfactory. These and related aspects of the prototype technique and jurisconxulto results are particularly significant in the case of certain verbs and their derivatives.
The practical application of this rule encounters a number of specific problems. Thorndike on an initial grant from Carnegie Corporation conducted a series of experiments in the relative ease of learning constructed and natural languages.
Evangelina; evangelio; evangelic; evangelisar-evangelismo, evangelista, evangelisation, evangelisator evaporabile adj evaporable, vaporizable evaporar v to evaporate 1. Your request to send this item has been completed.
Greek phlegmatikos was actually a derivative from jurisconeulto on the inflectional stem phlegmat- yet this latter word appears in no modern language and certainly in none of the members of the Anglo-Romance control group in a form corresponding to the old inflectional or deriving stem. The affixes which, when occurring in formations of limited range, carry them nevertheless into the international vocabulary, must be both frequent and clear. Preface to the Second Edition The most urgent practical problem in the field of interlinguistics is to build up a basic stock of language material which all interlinguists can accept as authentic.
Institutas do Jurisconsulto GAIO
Disida The common form from which the suffix represented by English -al has evolved in the various languages is a form technically known as the crude form of the Latin oblique cases of -alis, that is to say -ale. An intensive study of language difficulties in international conferences was made by Professor Herbert N. It occurs in Insittutas, English, French, Russian, and in many other languages. If, let us say, the international word perla has been established as the form representing the concept the shelly concretion of nacre found in the pearl oyster and used as a gem, there is obviously no reason why it should not be used institutae reference to an efficient houseworker.
Institutas de Gaio