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Two legs break out the infrared LED, and the other two legs break out the collector and emitter pins of the phototransistor the "base" of the phototransistor is controlled by the IR light returned. The image below, from the datasheet, shows which pin is which.
Pin 1, the collector of the transistor, can be found by locating the dot on the top of the component. You should also be able to see two noticeably different-colored rectangles -- one black and one clear.
The black rectangle is the phototransistor the black part is actually a filter cover , and the clear half is the LED. Top-down diagram of the QRD Note the pin 1 indicator. Looking from the top down, the pins increment in counter-clockwise order. Pin 3, the LED anode is across the short side of the photodetector from pin 2. And the cathode pin 4 is next to pin 3 and across the body from pin 1. The length of the legs can also help determine which pin is which. Pins 1 and 3 are longer than the other pins; probably not coincidentally, these are the "positive" pins of their respective components collector and anode.
The forward voltage is typically between 1. It at least demonstrates a few things about the sensor: The output tops out at about 30 mils 0. From the peak, it slopes down exponentially. At about mil 0. If an object gets too close to the sensor, it will enter a dead zone.
Anything closer than about 30 mils 0. They can reliably detect distances ranging from 0. Here is an example breadboard wiring diagram for the circuit: There are many ways to assemble this circuit on a breadboard. Example Code Here is a simple Arduino example based on the circuit above. Copy and paste this into your Arduino IDE, then upload! If you have not previously installed an Arduino library, please check out our installation guide.
Development environment specifics: Arduino 1. After testing it out with your finger, try testing other objects. The black surface absorbs more light from the LED, meaning less is reflected back to the phototransistor. Need some inspiration? Check out some of these related tutorials:.
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