Many Jews have cherished memories of past family times spent at a seder. It is believed that the obligation to tell the story of the Exodus was observed by Jews ever since the actual Exodus itself. The scriptural command Exodus to tell the story of the Exodus to our children is interpreted as a positive commandment mitzvah. Freedom is one of the primary themes of the seder. The seder permits Jews to worship God through prayer, study, and learning by taking part in what is essentially a lesson of Jewish history, literature, and religion.
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It is customary to invite guests, especially strangers and the needy. The Seder is integral to Jewish faith and identity: as explained in the Haggadah, if not for divine intervention and the Exodus, the Jewish people would still be slaves in Egypt. Therefore, the Seder is an occasion for praise and thanksgiving and for re-dedication to the idea of liberation. Furthermore, the words and rituals of the Seder are a primary vehicle for the transmission of the Jewish faith from grandparent to child, and from one generation to the next.
Attending a Seder and eating matza on Passover is a widespread custom in the Jewish community, even among those who are not religiously observant.
A Ukrainian 19th-century lubok representing the Seder table The Seder table is traditionally set with the finest place settings and silverware, and family members come to the table dressed in their holiday clothes. There is a tradition for the person leading the Seder to wear a white robe called a kittel. At the head of the table is a Seder plate containing various symbolic foods that will be eaten or pointed out during the course of the Seder.
Placed nearby is a plate with three matzot and dishes of salt water for dipping. Each participant receives a copy of the Haggadah, which is often a traditional version: an ancient text that contains the complete Seder service. Men and women are equally obliged and eligible to participate in the Seder. Halakha the collective body of Jewish religious laws requires that certain parts be said in language the participants can understand, and critical parts are often said in both Hebrew and the native language.
The leader will often interrupt the reading to discuss different points with his or her children, or to offer a Torah insight into the meaning or interpretation of the words. In some homes, participants take turns reciting the text of the Haggadah, in the original Hebrew or in translation.
It is traditional for the head of the household and other participants to have pillows placed behind them for added comfort. At several points during the Seder, participants lean to the left — when drinking the four cups of wine, eating the Afikoman, and eating the korech sandwich.
Seders have been observed around the world, including in remote places such as high in the Himalaya mountains in Kathmandu, Nepal. It is stated in the Hagaddah that "In every generation everyone is obligated to see themselves as if they themselves came out of Egypt" — i.
The rendering of time for the Hebrews was that a day began at sunset and ended at sunset. Historically, at the beginning of the 15th of Nisan in Ancient Egypt, the Jewish people were enslaved to Pharaoh.
After the tenth plague struck Egypt at midnight, killing all the first-born sons from the first-born of Pharaoh to the first-born of the lowest Egyptian to all the first-born of the livestock in the land Exodus , Pharaoh let the Hebrew nation go, effectively making them free people for the second half of the night.
The Four Cups[ edit ] There is an obligation to drink four cups of wine during the Seder. The Mishnah says Pes. Each cup is imbibed at a specific point in the Seder. The three matzot , in turn, are connected to the three Patriarchs: Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. Abarbanel relates the cups to the four historical redemptions of the Jewish people: the choosing of Abraham, the Exodus from Egypt, the survival of the Jewish people throughout the exile, and the fourth which will happen at the end of days.
The four cups might also reflect the Roman custom of drinking as many cups as there are letters in the name of the chief guest at a meal, which in the case of the Seder is God Himself whose Hebrew name has four letters. Each of the six items arranged on the plate has special significance to the retelling of the story of the Exodus from Egypt. The seventh symbolic item used during the meal — a stack of three matzot — is placed on its own plate on the Seder table. The six items on the Seder plate are: Maror : Bitter herbs, symbolizing the bitterness and harshness of the slavery which the Jews endured in Ancient Egypt.
For maror, many people use freshly grated horseradish or whole horseradish root. Chazeret is typically romaine lettuce, whose roots are bitter-tasting. In addition to horseradish and romaine lettuce, other forms of bitter lettuce, such as endive , may be eaten in fulfillment of the mitzvah , as well as green onions, dandelion greens, celery leaves, or curly parsley but parsley and celery are more commonly used as the karpas or vegetable element.
Charoset : A sweet, brown, pebbly paste of fruits and nuts, representing the mortar used by the Jewish slaves to build the storehouses of Egypt. The actual recipe depends partly on ethno-cultural tradition and partly on locally available ingredients. Karpas : A vegetable other than bitter herbs, usually parsley but sometimes something such as celery or cooked potato , which is dipped into salt water Ashkenazi custom , vinegar Sephardi custom , or charoset older custom, still common amongst Yemenite Jews at the beginning of the Seder.
Zeroa : A roasted lamb or goat bone, symbolizing the korban Pesach Pesach sacrifice , which was a lamb offered in the Temple in Jerusalem and was then roasted and eaten as part of the meal on Seder night. Beitzah: A roast egg — usually a hard-boiled egg that has been roasted in a baking pan with a little oil, or with a lamb shank — symbolizing the korban chagigah festival sacrifice that was offered in the Temple in Jerusalem and was then eaten as part of the meal on Seder night.
To that end, questions and answers are a central device in the Seder ritual. By encouraging children to ask questions, they will be more open to hearing the answers. Also, at different points in the Seder, the leader of the Seder will cover the matzot and lift their cup of wine; then put down the cup of wine and uncover the matzot — all to elicit questions from the children.
Physical re-enactment of the Exodus during the Passover seder is common in many families and communities, especially amongst Sephardim. In some families, the leader of the Seder hides the afikoman and the children must find it, whereupon they receive a prize or reward. In other homes, the children hide the afikoman and a parent must look for it; when the parents give up, the children demand a prize often money for revealing its location.
Order of the Seder[ edit ] The order and procedures of the Seder are stated and printed in the text of the Passover Haggadah , a copy of which is in front of all participants. It should be recited as soon as the synagogue services are over but not before nightfall. The Kiddush is traditionally said by the father of the house, but all Seder participants may participate by reciting the Kiddush and drinking at least a majority of the first cup of wine.
However, at other times of the year, one has either already washed their hands before eating bread, or dry the fruit or vegetable, in which case one need not wash their hands before eating the fruit or vegetable.
According to most traditions, no blessing is recited at this point in the Seder, unlike the blessing recited over the washing of the hands before eating bread. However, followers of Rambam or the Gaon of Vilna do recite a blessing. Karpas appetizer [ edit ] Each participant dips a vegetable into either salt water Ashkenazi custom; said to serve as a reminder of the tears shed by their enslaved ancestors , vinegar Sephardi custom or charoset older Sephardi custom; still common among Yemenite Jews.
Another custom mentioned in some Ashkenazi sources and probably originating with Meir of Rothenburg ,[ citation needed ] was to dip the karpas in wine. Yachatz breaking of the middle matzah [ edit ] Three matzot are stacked on the seder table; at this stage, the middle matzah of the three is broken in half. The larger piece is hidden, to be used later as the afikoman , the "dessert" after the meal.
The smaller piece is returned to its place between the other two matzot. Magid relating the Exodus [ edit ] The story of Passover, and the change from slavery to freedom is told. Participants declare in Aramaic an invitation to all who are hungry or needy to join in the Seder. Halakha requires that this invitation be repeated in the native language of the country. Mah Nishtanah The Four Questions [ edit ] Main article: the four questions The Mishna details questions one is obligated to ask on the night of the seder.
It is customary for the youngest child present to recite the four questions. In some families, this means that the requirement remains on an adult "child" until a grandchild of the family receives sufficient Jewish education to take on the responsibility. If a person has no children capable of asking, the responsibility falls to their spouse, or another participant.
Why is this night different from all other nights? Why is it that on all other nights during the year we eat either leavened bread or matza, but on this night we eat only matza?
Why is it that on all other nights we eat all kinds of vegetables, but on this night we eat bitter herbs? Why is it that on all other nights we do not dip [our food] even once, but on this night we dip them twice?
Why is it that on all other nights we dine either sitting upright or reclining, but on this night we all recline? Why is it that on all other nights we eat meat either roasted, marinated, or cooked, but on this night it is entirely roasted?
Roasted sacrifices were no longer possible after the destruction, and roasted meat was therefore disallowed on seder night, to avoid ambiguity. The questions are answered with the following: We eat only matzah because our ancestors could not wait for their breads to rise when they were fleeing slavery in Egypt, and so they were flat when they came out of the oven.
We eat only Maror, a bitter herb, to remind us of the bitterness of slavery that our ancestors endured while in Egypt. The first dip, green vegetables in salt water, symbolizes the replacing of our tears with gratitude, and the second dip, Maror in Charoses, symbolizes the sweetening of our burden of bitterness and suffering. We recline at the Seder table because in ancient times, a person who reclined at a meal was a free person, while slaves and servants stood. The four questions have been translated into over languages.
This is based upon the rabbis of the Jerusalem Talmud finding four references in the Torah to responding to your son who asks a question. The Haggadah recommends answering each son according to his question, using one of the three verses in the Torah that refer to this exchange.
The wise son asks "What are the statutes, the testimonies, and the laws that God has commanded us to do? He is answered fully: "You should reply to him with [all] the laws of pesach: one may not eat any dessert after the paschal sacrifice. Therefore, he is rebuked by the explanation that "It is because God acted for my sake when I left Egypt. Where the four sons are illustrated in the Haggadah, this son has frequently been depicted as carrying weapons or wearing stylish contemporary fashions.
The simple son, who asks, "What is this? The fifth child can represent the children of the Shoah who did not survive to ask a question  or represent Jews who have drifted so far from Jewish life that they do not participate in a Seder. And the Egyptians dealt ill with us, and afflicted us, and laid upon us hard bondage.
And we cried unto the Lord, the God of our parents, and the Lord heard our voice, and saw our affliction, and our toil, and our oppression. This telling describes the slavery of the Jewish people and their miraculous salvation by God.
At this part in the Seder, songs of praise are sung, including the song Dayenu , which proclaims that had God performed any single one of the many deeds performed for the Jewish people, it would have been enough to obligate us to give thanks. Then follows a short prayer, and the recital of the first two psalms of Hallel which will be concluded after the meal. A long blessing is recited, and the second cup of wine is drunk.
Rohtzah ritual washing of hands [ edit ] The ritual hand-washing is repeated, this time with all customs including a blessing. Motzi blessings over the Matzah [ edit ] Two blessings are recited. First one recites the standard blessing before eating bread, which includes the words "who brings forth" motzi in Hebrew. An olive-size piece some say two is then eaten while reclining to the left. Maror bitter herbs [ edit ] The blessing for the eating of the maror bitter herbs is recited and then it is to be eaten.
Shulchan Orech the meal [ edit ] A Seder table setting The festive meal is eaten. Traditionally it begins with the charred egg on the Seder plate. Tzafun eating of the afikoman [ edit ] Main article: Afikoman The afikoman, which was hidden earlier in the Seder, is traditionally the last morsel of food eaten by participants in the Seder.
Each participant receives an olive-sized portion of matzo to be eaten as afikoman. After the consumption of the afikoman, traditionally, no other food may be eaten for the rest of the night.
Additionally, no intoxicating beverages may be consumed, with the exception of the remaining two cups of wine.
Passover Observances Passover is divided into two parts: The first two days and last two days the latter commemorating the splitting of the Red Sea are full-fledged holidays. Holiday candles are lit at night, and kiddush and sumptuous holiday meals are enjoyed on both nights and days. We are permitted to cook and to carry outdoors click here for the details. This includes bread, cake, cookies, cereal, pasta, and most alcoholic beverages.
Séder de Pésaj
De Haggada behandelt het verhaal van de Joodse slavernij in Egypte en de uittocht uit Egypte. Haggada betekent: vertelling. De maaltijd[ bewerken brontekst bewerken ] De sedermaaltijd bestaat uit het eten van ongezuurde broden en bittere kruiden en is uitgegroeid tot een maaltijd met als centrum de sederschotel, met ongezuurd brood matse , een symbolisch bot van een lam, een gekookt en daarna gebraden ei , bittere kruiden maror , maar ook zoet charoset. De maror staat symbool voor de onderdrukking van de Joden in Egypte, de matzes voor het feit dat ze overhaast uit Egypte moesten vertrekken, zonder tijd om het brood te laten rijzen .
The Passover (Pesach) Seder